Article

Hate Crimes

Valerie Jenness

in The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy

Published in print August 2011 | ISBN: 9780199844654
Published online September 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199844654.013.0022

Series: Oxford Handbook in Criminology & Criminal Justice

Hate Crimes

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Hate crime is a product of civil right, disabilities rights, and crime victims' movements. This article primarily focuses on criminal justice concerns related to hate crime. Assessments of hate crime-related criminal justice policy and law enforcement practices require an understanding of the emergence of hate crime. It presents a summary of early assessments of hate crime law and concerns about bias-motivated violence as “merely symbolic politics” with minimal enforcement effects. It conceptualizes this assessment and includes a brief summary of federal and state hate crime law. The next section details the organization of hate crime enforcement and the outcomes of law enforcement practices, including data on the policing and prosecution of hate crime. Finally, it discusses the development of hate crime law and law enforcement practices beyond the United States.

Keywords: hate crime; criminal justice; violence; law enforcement; outcomes

Article.  9441 words. 

Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice ; Violent Crime

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