Journal Article

Renal sodium handling in children with nephrotic relapse: relation to hypovolaemic symptoms

J. G. Vande Walle, R. A. M. G. Donckerwolcke, T. B. Wimersma Greidanus, J. A. Joles and H. A. Koomans

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 11, issue 11, pages 2202-2208
Published in print November 1996 | ISSN: 0931-0509
e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI:
Renal sodium handling in children with nephrotic relapse: relation to hypovolaemic symptoms

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We studied renal sodium handling during water diuresis in children in the early phase of relapse of minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome (MLNS). Findings were related to presence or absence of symptoms suggestive of hypovolaemia, and to neurohumoral factors, and were compared to results of similar studies in the same children in remission. Nine children (aged 7.8±3.1 years) presented with hypovolaemic symptoms, and 10 (7.4±4.3 years) without such symptoms. Both groups displayed severe proteinuria, hypoproteinaemia and oedema. Symptomatic patients showed tendency for a low glomerular filtration rate, and significantly impaired urine dilution, decreased fractional sodium and lithium excretions, and elevated diluting segment reabsorption [CH2O/(CH2O+CNa)] and sodium/potassium exchange [UK/(UK+UNa)]. In the non-symptomatic patients these parameters were normal. Plasma renin and aldosterone were significantly elevated in the symptomatic children, and strongly correlated with all parameters of tubule sodium reabsorption. Weaker associations were found for plasma noradrenaline and atrial natriuretic peptide. Vasopressin was also relatively high in the symptomatic group, but showed no association with impaired urine dilution. The diffusely stimulated tubular sodium reabsorption in the symptomatic children, in association with stimulated neurohumoral factors, indicates that secondary sodium retention contributes to oedema formation in at least a subset of children developing a nephrotic relapse. This may be limited to the early stage, and be more pronounced in some patients than in others. The tubular defect responsible for maintenance of oedema in stabilized MLNS remains unclear.

Keywords: nephrotic syndrome; renal sodium handling; children

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Nephrology

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