Journal Article

Protein nitrogen appearance in CAPD patients: what is the best formula?

S. Mandolfo, A. Zucchi, L. Cavalieri D'Oro, B. Corradi and E. Imbasciati

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation

Published on behalf of European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Assoc

Volume 11, issue 8, pages 1592-1596
Published in print August 1996 | ISSN: 0931-0509
e-ISSN: 1460-2385 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.ndt.a027619
Protein nitrogen appearance in CAPD patients: what is the best formula?

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Background.

The protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance is an indirect index commonly used to assess dietary protein intake in patients on CAPD. Moreover it has been suggested that the ratio between nitrogen appearance and dietary nitrogen intake (fractional urea synthesis) can predict nitrogen balance in uraemic patients. Several formulae to directly calculate the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance have been published. It has not been established, however, what formulae give the most appropriate estimate of protein intake and nitrogen appearance.

Study design.

Nitrogen balance studies were carried out in seven stable patients on CAPD. All of the patients were receiving a diet whose protein content (1.2 g/kg/body wt/day) and calorie content (35 kcal/kg/body wt/day) were rigorously controlled. Six formulae for calculating protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance and nitrogen appearance were tested and the agreement of the estimating formulae was evaluated by means of the Bland and Altman method.

Results.

Net nitrogen balance was 1.68±0.9 g/N day, protein intake (g/day) 81±19, protein intake (g/kg) 1.05±0.17. Differences in protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance of up to about 20% were found. The smallest differences between protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance and protein intake were obtained by the formulae of Bergstrom (1±7 g, limits of agreement −12 and +15 g) and Blumenkrantz (−2±5 g, limits of agreement −11 and +7 g). The formula of Bergstrom most closely estimated nitrogen appearance (−0.35±0.89 g). Using such formula, the fractional urea synthesis was 54±12%, giving evidence of positive nitrogen balances.

Conclusion.

For the routine monitoring of protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance in CAPD patients, we recommend Bergstrom's formula with the determination of dialysate protein losses.

Keywords: PNA; protein intake; nitrogen balance; CAPD

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Nephrology

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