Journal Article

<i>EMF</i> Genes Interact with Late-Flowering Genes to Regulate <i>Arabidopsis</i> Shoot Development

Ming-Der Haung and Chang-Hsien Yang

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 39, issue 4, pages 382-393
Published in print April 1998 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online April 1998 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI:
EMF Genes Interact with Late-Flowering Genes to Regulate Arabidopsis Shoot Development

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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To investigate the genetic mechanisms regulating the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase in Arabidopsis, double mutants between two embryonic flower (emf) and 12 different late-flowering mutants were constructed and analyzed. Double mutants in all combinations displayed the emf phenotypes without forming rosettes during early development; however, clear variations between different double mutants were observed during late development, fwa significantly enhanced the vegetative property of both emf mutants by producing a high number of sessile leaves without any further reproductive growth in emf1 fwa double mutants. It also produced numerous leaf-like flower structures similar to those in leafy ap1 double mutant in emf1 fwa double mutants. Nine late-flowering mutants, ft, fca, ld, fd, fpa, fe, fy, fha, and fve, caused different degrees of increase in the number of sessile leaves, the size of inflorescence, and the number of flowers only in weak emf1 and emf2 mutant alleles background. Two late-flowering mutants, co and gi, however, had no effect on either emf1 and emf2 mutant alleles in double mutants. Our results suggest that FWA function in distinct pathways from both EMF genes to regulate flower competence by activating genes which specify floral meristem identity. CO and GI negatively regulate both EMF genes, whereas the other nine late-flowering genes may interact with EMF genes directly or indirectly to regulate shoot maturation in Arabidopsis.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; Double mutants; embryonic flower mutant; Flower competence; Late-flowering mutants

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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