Journal Article

Moderator Variables of Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analytic Findings<sup>1</sup>

Margaret Johnson-Selfridge and Christine Zalewski

in Schizophrenia Bulletin

Published on behalf of Maryland Psychiatric Research Center

Volume 27, issue 2, pages 305-316
Published in print January 2001 | ISSN: 0586-7614
Published online January 2001 | e-ISSN: 1745-1701 | DOI:
Moderator Variables of Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analytic Findings1

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The literature regarding executive functioning schizophrenia was examined to determine effect size differences between schizophrenic, normal control, and psychiatric groups. Effect sizes (n = 176) from 71 studies were cumulated across measures including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Halstead Category Test (HCT), verbal/design fluency, Trail Making B (TMB), and the Stroop Color-Word Test. Schizophrenic groups were impaired relative to controls (Δ = −1.45). Schizophrenic groups also performed 0.40 standard deviations lower than psychiatric groups. Within the schizophrenic versus normal control comparisons, the effect size based on complex measures, such as the WCST/HCT (Δ = −1.42), was similar to that based on less complex measures, such as TMB and the Stroop (Δ = −1.58). Chlorpromazine equivalents and illness duration were not significantly correlated with effect sizes (p > 0.05). Effect sizes and number of hospitalizations (p < 0.05) were related. Effect sizes and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were not significantly correlated. Negative and positive symptoms were significantly correlated (p <0.05). The results as they apply to research and clinical practice are discussed.

Keywords: Neuropsychology; schizophrenia; executive functioning

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Subjects: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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