Journal Article

Expression of Two <i>HOOKLESS</i> Genes in Peas (<i>Pisum sativum</i> L.)

Qin Du and Hans Kende

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 42, issue 4, pages 374-378
Published in print April 2001 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online April 2001 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI:
Expression of Two HOOKLESS Genes in Peas (Pisum
sativum L.)

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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The apical hook of dark-grown dicotyledonous plants results from asymmetric growth of its inner and outer sides. It is a protective structure that prevents damage to the shoot apical meristem and the young leaves as the seedling pushes through the soil. Two phytohormones, ethylene and auxin, are thought to be involved in regulating apical hook formation. HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) of Arabidopsis was recognized as an ethylene-response gene whose product is required for hook formation. We cloned two cDNAs from peas, Ps-HLS1 and Ps-HLS2, whose products are functional homologs of HLS1. Both Ps-HLS1 and Ps-HLS2 complement the hls1 mutation in Arabidopsis. Expression of Ps-HLS1 is enhanced by ethylene and by IAA. Because the effect of ethylene is counteracted by 2,5-norbornadiene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, it appears that the primary factor in apical hook formation in peas is ethylene.

Keywords: Key words: Apical hook — Auxin (IAA) — Ethylene — HOOKLESS gene — Pea (Pisum sativum L.).; The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to GenBank under accession numbers AF277895 (Ps-HLS1) and AF277896 (Ps-HLS2).

Journal Article.  2892 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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