Journal Article

Gramine Increase Associated with Rapid and Transient Systemic Resistance in Barley Seedlings Induced by Mechanical and Biological Stresses

Hironobu Matsuo, Kumiko Taniguchi, Tadahiro Hiramoto, Tetsuji Yamada, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Kazuyoshi Takeda and Tomonori Shiraishi

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 42, issue 10, pages 1103-1111
Published in print October 2001 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online October 2001 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pce139
Gramine Increase Associated with Rapid and Transient Systemic
Resistance in Barley Seedlings Induced by Mechanical and Biological
Stresses

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one of the intriguing issues for studying the mechanism in signal transduction system in a whole plant. We found that SAR and increase of an antifungal compound were induced rapidly and transiently in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Goseshikoku) by mechanical and biological stresses. One of the major antifungal compounds was identified as an indole alkaloid, gramine (N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole), by mass spectrum and NMR analyses. Gramine is well known as a constitutive compound of barley, but it increased significantly in the primary and secondary leaves of barley seedlings within 12 h after pruning or inoculating with the powdery mildew fungi of barley (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and wheat (B. graminis f.sp. tritici). However, in the leaf detached from unwounded seedlings or in the leaf inoculated with the barley powdery mildew fungus, gramine did not increase at all. In the water droplets contacted with barley leaves, the amount of leaked gramine increased dependently upon the time after the seedling was injured mechanically. We also found a tight correlation between gramine increase and enhancement of resistance to the barley powdery mildew fungus in barley leaves treated with an endogenous elicitor. Furthermore, such a systemic resistance was not observed in a barley cultivar Morex that lacks the biosynthetic pathway of gramine. From these results, we conclude that gramine is the excellent marker in rapid and transient systemic acquired resistance in barley.

Keywords: Key words: Barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis hordei) — Endogenous elicitor — Gramine — Hordeum vulgare L. — Mechanical injury — Systemic acquired resistance.

Journal Article.  6159 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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