Journal Article

Reappraisal of the Currently Prevailing Model of Starch Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Tissues: A Proposal Involving the Cytosolic Production of ADP-Glucose by Sucrose Synthase and Occurrence of Cyclic Turnover of Starch in the Chloroplast

Edurne Baroja-Fernández, Francisco José Muñoz, Takashi Akazawa and Javier Pozueta-Romero

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 42, issue 12, pages 1311-1320
Published in print December 2001 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online December 2001 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pce175
Reappraisal of the Currently Prevailing Model of Starch Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Tissues: A Proposal Involving the Cytosolic Production of ADP-Glucose by Sucrose Synthase and Occurrence of Cyclic Turnover of Starch in the Chloroplast

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A vast amount of information has accumulated which supports the view that sucrose and starch are end-products of two segregated, yet highly interconnected, gluconeogenic pathways taking place in the cytosol and chloroplast, respectively. However, several lines of experimental evidences indicate that, essentially identical to the case of heterotrophic tissues, starch formation in the photosynthetic tissues may involve the direct import to the chloroplast of cytosolic hexose (C6) units derived from the sucrose breakdown. This evidence is consistent with the idea that synthesis of a sizable pool of ADP-glucose takes place in the cytosol by means of sucrose synthase whereas, basically in agreement with recent investigations dealing with glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria and animals, chloroplastic phosphoglucomutase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase are most likely playing a role in channelling of glucose units derived from the starch breakdown in the chloroplast, thus making up a regulatory starch turnover cycle.

According to this new view, we propose that starch production in the chloroplast is the result of a flexible and dynamic mechanism wherein both catabolic and anabolic reactions take place simultaneously in a highly interactive manner. Starch is seen as an intermediate component of a cyclic gluconeogenic pathway which, in turn, is connected with other metabolic pathways. The possible importance of metabolic turnover as a way to control starch production is exemplified with the recently discovered ADP-glucose pyrophosphatase, an enzyme likely having a dual role in controlling levels of ADP-glucose linked to starch biosynthesis and diverting carbon flow towards other metabolic pathways.

Keywords: Key words: ADP-glucose — ADP-glucose pyrophosphatase — Chloroplast — Gluconeogenesis — Sucrose synthase.; Abbreviations: ADPG, ADP-glucose; AGPase, ADPG pyrophosphorylase; AGPPase, ADPG pyrophosphatase; cpFBP aldolase, chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase; cpFBPase, chloroplastic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase; cpPGM, chloroplastic phosphoglucomutase; G6P, glucose-6-P; SS, sucrose synthase; UDPG, UDP-glucose; UGPase, UGPG pyrophosphorylase.

Journal Article.  6658 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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