Journal Article

<i>ACR4</i>, a Putative Receptor Kinase Gene of <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>, that is Expressed in the Outer Cell Layers of Embryos and Plants, is Involved in Proper Embryogenesis

Hirokazu Tanaka, Masaru Watanabe, Daisuke Watanabe, Toshihiro Tanaka, Chiyoko Machida and Yasunori Machida

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 43, issue 4, pages 419-428
Published in print April 2002 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online April 2002 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcf052
ACR4, a Putative Receptor Kinase Gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, that is Expressed in the Outer Cell Layers of Embryos and Plants, is Involved in Proper Embryogenesis

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The surfaces of higher plants are characterized by epidermis, which usually consists of a single layer of cells. The epidermis is derived from the outer cell layer of the embryo or protoderm, which arises as a result of periclinal cell division. After seed germination, most of the epidermal cells of the aerial parts of plants are derived from the outer cell layer of the shoot apical meristem (the L1 layer). Thus, knowledge of how the protoderm and/or L1 layer is established is fundamental to understanding the morphogenesis of higher plants. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding an Arabidopsis homologue (ACR4) of the maize putative receptor kinase CRINKLY4 (CR4), which is involved in epidermal differentiation. The domain organization of the predicted amino acid sequence of ACR4 is essentially identical to that of CR4. ACR4-GFP fusion protein localized to the cell surface when expressed in tobacco cell (BY-2) culture. ACR4 transcripts were detected in all the organs of the Arabidopsis plant. In developing embryos and shoot apices, ACR4 transcripts accumulated in protoderm and epidermis at relatively higher levels than in the inner tissues. Over-expression of antisense ACR4 in Arabidopsis plants resulted in malformation of embryos to varying degrees. These results suggest that ACR4 is, at a minimum, involved in the normal morphogenesis of embryos, most likely through properly differentiating protoderm cells.

Keywords: Key words: Arabidopsis thaliana — Embryogenesis — Epidermis — Protoderm — Receptor kinase.; Abbreviations: ACR4, Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of CR4; BY-2, bright yellow-2; DIC, differential interference contrast; GFP, green fluorescent protein; nt, nucleotide; TNFR, tumor necrosis factor receptor; SAM, shoot apical meristem.

Journal Article.  6203 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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