Journal Article

Spontaneous Mutations of the Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase Gene Conferring Reddish Flowers in the Three Morning Glory Species

Atsushi Hoshino, Yasumasa Morita, Jeong-Doo Choi, Norio Saito, Kenjiro Toki, Yoshikazu Tanaka and Shigeru Iida

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 44, issue 10, pages 990-1001
Published in print October 2003 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online October 2003 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcg143
Spontaneous Mutations of the Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase Gene Conferring Reddish Flowers in the Three Morning Glory Species

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Among the Ipomoea plants, both Ipomoea nil and Ipomoea tricolor display bright blue flowers, and Ipomoea purpurea exhibits dark purple flowers. While all of these flowers contain cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments, the mutants of I. nil, I. purpurea, and I. tricolor carrying the magenta, pink, and fuchsia alleles, respectively, produce reddish flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives, and all of them are deficient in the gene for flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H). The magenta allele in I. nil is a nonsense mutation caused by a single C to T base transition generating the stop codon TGA, and the cultivar Violet carries the same mutation. Several tested pink mutants in I. purpurea carry inserts of the 0.55-kb DNA transposable element Tip201 belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily at the identical site. No excision of Tip201 from the F3H gene could be detected, and both splicing and polyadenylation patterns of the F3H transcripts were affected by the Tip201 integration. The fuchsia allele in I. tricolor is a single T insertion generating the stop codon TAG, and the accumulation of the F3H transcripts was drastically reduced by the nonsense-mediated RNA decay. Spontaneous mutations in Ipomoea, including a possible founder mutation in the pink allele, are also discussed.

Keywords: Keywords: Anthocyanin biosynthesis — Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase gene — Flower pigmentation — Ipomoea — Transposable element — Nonsense-mediated RNA decay.; Abbreviations: ANS, anthocyanidin synthase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; CHS, chalcone synthase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; F3H, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; F3′5′H, flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase; F3′H, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase; HBA, Heavenly Blue Anthocyanin; MELS, mobile element-like sequence; NMD, nonsense-mediated RNA decay; pre-mRNA, precursor mRNA; TIR, terminal inverted repeat; TSD, target site duplication; UF3GT, UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase.

Journal Article.  9247 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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