Journal Article

<i>WAP1</i>, a Wheat <i>APETALA1</i> Homolog, Plays a Central Role in the Phase Transition from Vegetative to Reproductive Growth

Koji Murai, Mamiko Miyamae, Hiromi Kato, Shigeo Takumi and Yasunari Ogihara

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 44, issue 12, pages 1255-1265
Published in print December 2003 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online December 2003 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcg171
WAP1, a Wheat APETALA1 Homolog, Plays a Central Role in the Phase Transition from Vegetative to Reproductive Growth

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Heading time in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is determined by three characters: vernalization requirement, photoperiodic sensitivity and narrow-sense earliness, which are involved in the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. We identified and characterized the APETALA1 (AP1)-like MADS box gene in wheat (WAP1) as an activator of phase transition. Its expression starts just before the phase transition and is maintained during the reproductive phase. Inhibition of WAP1 expression in the transgenic plants by co-suppression affected neither vernalization requirement nor photoperiodic sensitivity, but resulted in delayed narrow-sense earliness, indicating that WAP1 accelerates autonomous phase transition. Analyses of the WAP1 expression in the near-isogenic lines (NILs) for spring habit genes (Vrn) revealed that WAP1 transcripts were induced by vernalization strongly in the NILs with Vrn dominant alleles and weakly with the recessive alleles. Furthermore, WAP1 expression was up-regulated by a long photoperiod in both NILs with and those without a photoperiod-insensitive gene (Ppd). These results suggest that WAP1 is a key gene in the regulatory pathway controlling the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in wheat.

Keywords: Keywords: APETALA1 — Heading time — MADS box gene — Phase transition — Triticum aestivum L. — Wheat.; Abbreviations: AP1, APETALA1; AGL20, AGAMOUS-LIKE 20; CAL, CAULIFLOWER; CO, CONSTANS; CS, Chinese Spring; FLC, FLOWERING LOCUS C; FLM, FLOWERING LOCUS M; FT, FLOWERING LOCUS T; FUL, FRUITFULL; GA, gibberellin; LFY, LEAFY; MAF1, MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING1; NILs, near-isogenic lines; N26, Norin 26; SOC1, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1; TD, Triple Dirk; WAG, wheat AGAMOUS; WAP1, wheat APETALA1; WAP3, wheat APETALA3.

Journal Article.  7311 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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