Journal Article

The putative <i>glutamate receptor 1.1</i> (<i>AtGLR1.1</i>) in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling to Control Development and Water Loss

Jiman Kang, Sohum Mehta and Frank J. Turano

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 45, issue 10, pages 1380-1389
Published in print October 2004 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online October 2004 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pch159
The putative glutamate receptor 1.1 (AtGLR1.1) in Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling to Control Development and Water Loss

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The involvement of the putative glutamate receptor 1.1 (AtGLR1.1) gene in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling was investigated in Arabidopsis. Seeds from AtGLR1.1-deficient (antiAtGLR1.1) lines had increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA with regard to the effect of the hormone on the inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Seed germination, which was inhibited by an animal ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-[1H,4H]-dione, was restored by co-incubation with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone. These results confirm that germination in antiAtGLR1.1 lines was inhibited by increased ABA. When antiAtGLR1.1 and WT seeds were co-incubated in fluridone and exogenous ABA, the antiAtGLR1.1 seeds were more sensitive to ABA. In addition, the antiAtGLR1.1 lines exhibited altered expression of ABA biosynthetic (ABA) and signaling (ABI) genes, when compared with WT. Combining the physiological and molecular results suggest that ABA biosynthesis and signaling in antiAtGLR1.1 lines are altered. ABA levels in leaves of antiAtGLR1.1 lines are higher than those in WT. In addition, the antiAtGLR1.1 lines had reduced stomatal apertures, and exhibited enhanced drought tolerance due to deceased water loss compared with WT lines. The results from these experiments imply that ABA biosynthesis and signaling can be regulated through AtGLR1.1 to trigger pre- and post-germination arrest and changes in whole plant responses to water stress. Combined with our earlier results, these findings suggest that AtGLR1.1 integrates and regulates the different aspects of C, N and water balance that are required for normal plant growth and development.

Keywords: Keywords: Abscisic acid — Arabidopsis thaliana — Glutamate receptor — Stomatal closure — Water loss.; Abbreviations: C, carbon; DNQX, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-[1H,4H]-dione; N, nitrogen; NO, nitric oxide; NR, nitrate reductase; AtNOS1, nitric oxide synthase.

Journal Article.  7643 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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