Journal Article

Myxol and 4-Ketomyxol 2′-Fucosides, not Rhamnosides, from <i>Anabaena</i> sp. PCC 7120 and <i>Nostoc punctiforme</i> PCC 73102, and Proposal for the Biosynthetic Pathway of Carotenoids

Shinichi Takaichi, Mari Mochimaru, Takashi Maoka and Hiroshi Katoh

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 46, issue 3, pages 497-504
Published in print March 2005 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online March 2005 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pci049
Myxol and 4-Ketomyxol 2′-Fucosides, not Rhamnosides, from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, and Proposal for the Biosynthetic Pathway of Carotenoids

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We identified the molecular structures of carotenoids in some Anabaena and Nostoc species. The myxoxanthophyll and ketomyxoxanthophyll in Anabaena (also known as Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena variabilis IAM M-3, Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Nostoc sp. HK-01 were (3R,2′S)-myxol 2′-fucoside and (3S,2′S)-4-ketomyxol 2′-fucoside, respectively. The glycoside moiety of the pigments was fucose, not rhamnose. The major carotenoids were β-carotene and echinenone, and the minor ones were β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and 3′-hydroxyechinenone. Based on the identification of the carotenoids and the completion of the entire nucleotide sequence of the genome in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and N. punctiforme PCC 73102, we proposed a biosynthetic pathway for the carotenoids and the corresponding genes and enzymes. Since only ζ-carotene desaturase (CrtQ) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and β-carotene ketolase (CrtW) from N. punctiforme PCC 73102 have been functionally identified, the other genes were searched by sequence homology only from the functionally confirmed genes. Finally, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among some Anabaena and Nostoc species, including some newly isolated species.

Keywords: Anabaena; Carotenogenesis; Carotenoid; 4-Ketomyxol 2′-fucoside; Myxol 2′-fucoside; Nostoc; CD, circular dichroism; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; TLC, thin-layer chromatography.

Journal Article.  5305 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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