Journal Article

Plant Cell Growth and Ion Flux Responses to the Streptomycete Phytotoxin Thaxtomin A: Calcium and Hydrogen Flux Patterns Revealed by the Non-invasive MIFE Technique

Robert Steven Tegg, Lolita Melian, Calum Rae Wilson and Sergey Shabala

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 46, issue 4, pages 638-648
Published in print April 2005 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online April 2005 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pci069
Plant Cell Growth and Ion Flux Responses to the Streptomycete Phytotoxin Thaxtomin A: Calcium and Hydrogen Flux Patterns Revealed by the Non-invasive MIFE Technique

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Thaxtomin A, a key phytotoxin produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces sp., is implicit in common scab disease expression in potato. Primary targets and modes of action of thaxtomin A toxicity in plant cells are not well understood. In this work, early signalling events associated with thaxtomin A toxicity were studied using the ion-selective microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE) technique. Thaxtomin A-induced changes in net ion fluxes were measured across the plasma membrane (PM) of root and pollen tube tissue in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. Within a minute after toxin application, a rapid and short-lived Ca2+ influx was observed. Well ahead of the marked inhibition of root growth, a significant shift towards net H+ efflux across the PM occurred in all tissues. Similar to root tissues, thaxtomin A significantly modified ion flux profiles from growing pollen tubes. Thaxtomin A was more effective in young, physiologically active tissues (root elongation zone or pollen tube apex), suggesting a higher density of thaxtomin A-binding sites in these regions. Overall, our data provide the first evidence that thaxtomin A triggers an early signalling cascade, which may be crucial in plant–pathogen interactions. It also suggests a possible interaction between thaxtomin A and PM auxin receptors, as revealed from experiments on the auxin-sensitive ucu2-2/gi2 A. thaliana mutant.

Keywords: Calcium; Common scab disease of potato; Hydrogen; Ion flux; Pollen tube growth; Thaxtomin A; [Ca2+]cyt, cytosolic free calcium; CCCP, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; CNG, cyclic nucleotide-gated non-selective ion channel; MIFE, microelectrode ion flux estimation; NSCC, non-selective cation channel; PM, plasma membrane

Journal Article.  8901 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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