Journal Article

<i>Pseudo</i>-Response Regulators (PRRs) or <i>True</i> Oscillator Components (TOCs)

Takeshi Mizuno and Norihito Nakamichi

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 46, issue 5, pages 677-685
Published in print May 2005 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online May 2005 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI:
Pseudo-Response Regulators (PRRs) or True Oscillator Components (TOCs)

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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In Arabidopsis thaliana, AUTHENTIC RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARRs) act as downstream components of the His-to-Asp phosphorelay (two-component) signaling pathway that is propagated primarily by the cytokinin receptor kinases, AUTHENTIC HIS-KINASES (AHK2, AHK3 and AHK4/CRE1). Thus, this bacterial type of signaling system is essential for responses to a class of hormones in plants. Interestingly, this higher plant has also evolved its own atypical (or unique) variants of two-component signal transducers, PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATORS (PRRs). Several lines of recent results suggest that the functions of PRRs are closely relevant to the plant clock (oscillator) that is central to circadian rhythms, the underlying mechanisms of which have long been the subject of debate. Through an overview of recent results, the main issue addressed here is whether or not the pseudo-response regulators (PRRs) are true oscillator components (TOCs).

Keywords: Biological clock; Circadiam rhythm; Flowering time; Photomorphogenesis; Pseudo-response regulator; CCA1, CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1; HK, histidine kinase; LHY, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL; PRR, PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR; RR, response regulator; TOC1, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1

Journal Article.  7359 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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