Journal Article

Lipid Biosynthesis and its Coordination with Cell Cycle Progression

Alvin C. M. Kwok and Joseph T. Y. Wong

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 46, issue 12, pages 1973-1986
Published in print December 2005 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online December 2005 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pci213
Lipid Biosynthesis and its Coordination with Cell Cycle Progression

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The activation of cell cycle regulators at the G1/S boundary has been linked to the cellular protein synthesis rate. It is conceivable that regulatory mechanisms are required to allow cells to coordinate the synthesis of other macromolecules with cell cycle progression. The availability of highly synchronized cells and flow cytometric methods facilitates investigation of the dynamics of lipid synthesis in the entire cell cycle of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii. Flow cytograms of Nile red-stained cells revealed a stepwise increase in the polar lipid content and a continuous increase in neutral lipid content in the dinoflagellate cell cycle. A cell cycle delay at early G1, but not G2/M, was observed upon inhibition of lipid synthesis. However, lipid synthesis continued during cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. A cell cycle delay was not observed when inhibitors of cellulose synthesis and fatty acid synthesis were added after the late G1 phase of the cell cycle. This implicates a commitment point that monitors the synthesis of fatty acids at the late G1 phase of the dinoflagellate cell cycle. Reduction of the glucose concentration in the medium down-regulated the G1 cell size with a concomitant forward shift of the commitment point. Inhibition of lipid synthesis up-regulated cellulose synthesis and resulted in an increase in cellulosic contents, while an inhibition of cellulose synthesis had no effects on lipid synthesis. Fatty acid synthesis and cellulose synthesis are apparently coupled to the cell cycle via independent pathways.

Keywords: Cell cycle progression; Cell growth; Cellulose synthesis; Commitment point; Dinoflagellates; Lipid biosynthesis; CFW, calcofluor white M2R; DCB, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; FAS, fatty acid synthesis; FSC, forward scatter; HU, hydroxyurea; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; PFA, paraformaldehyde; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid

Journal Article.  10084 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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