Journal Article

Polyamines Induce Rapid Biosynthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO) in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> Seedlings

Ni Ni Tun, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Tahmina Begum, Vanildo Silveira, Walter Handro, Eny Iochevet Segal Floh and Günther F. E. Scherer

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 47, issue 3, pages 346-354
Published in print March 2006 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online March 2006 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI:
Polyamines Induce Rapid Biosynthesis of Nitric Oxide (NO) in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry


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In this study, we examined the regulation by putrescine, spermidine and spermine of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Using a fluorimetric method employing the cell-impermeable NO-binding dye diaminorhodamine-4M (DAR-4M), we observed that the polyamines (PAs) spermidine and spermine greatly increased NO release in the seedlings, whereas arginine and putrescine had little or no effect. Spermine, the most active PA, stimulated NO release with no apparent lag phase. The response was quenched by addition of 2-aminoethyl-2-thiopseudourea (AET), an inhibitor of the animal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and plant NO biosynthesis, and by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxy-3-oxide (PTIO), an NO scavenger. By fluorescence microscopy, using the cell-permeable NO-binding dye diaminorhodamine-4M acetoxymethyl ester (DAR-4M AM), we observed that PAs induced NO biosynthesis in specific tissues in Arabidopsis seedlings. Spermine and spermidine increased NO biosynthesis in the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root tip and in primary leaves, especially in the veins and trichomes, while in cotyledons little or no effect of PAs beyond the endogenous levels of NO-induced fluorescence was observed. We conclude that PAs induce NO biosynthesis in plants.

Keywords: Arginine; Nitric oxide; Polyamines; Putrescine; Spermidine; Spermine; AET, 2-aminoethyl-2-thiopseudourea; DAR 4M, diaminorhodamine-4M; DAR 4M AM, diaminorhodamine-4M acetoxymethyl ester; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; MAP, mitogen-acitvated protein; NO, nitric oxide; NOS, nitric oxide synthase; NR, nitrate reductase; PA, polyamine; PTIO, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxy-3-oxide

Journal Article.  6201 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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