Journal Article

Conserved Expression Profiles of Circadian Clock-related Genes in Two <i>Lemna</i> Species Showing Long-day and Short-day Photoperiodic Flowering Responses

Kumiko Miwa, Masayuki Serikawa, Sayaka Suzuki, Takao Kondo and Tokitaka Oyama

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 47, issue 5, pages 601-612
Published in print May 2006 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online May 2006 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcj027
Conserved Expression Profiles of Circadian Clock-related Genes in Two Lemna Species Showing Long-day and Short-day Photoperiodic Flowering Responses

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The Lemna genus is a group of monocotyledonous plants with tiny, floating bodies. Lemna gibba G3 and L. paucicostata 6746 were once intensively analyzed for physiological timing systems of photoperiodic flowering and circadian rhythms since they showed obligatory and sensitive photoperiodic responses of a long-day and a short-day plant, respectively. We attempted to approach the divergence of biological timing systems at the molecular level using these plants. We first employed molecular techniques to study their circadian clock systems. We developed a convenient bioluminescent reporter system to monitor the circadian rhythms of Lemna plants. As in Arabidopsis, the Arabidopsis CCA1 promoter produced circadian expression in Lemna plants, though the phases and the sustainability of bioluminescence rhythms were somewhat diverged between them. Lemna homologs of the Arabidopsis clock-related genes LHY/CCA1, GI, ELF3 and PRRs were then isolated as candidates for clock-related genes in these plants. These genes showed rhythmic expression profiles that were basically similar to those of Arabidopsis under light–dark conditions. Results from co-transfection assays using the bioluminescence reporter and overexpression effectors suggested that the LHY and GI homologs of Lemna can function in the circadian clock system like the counterparts of Arabidopsis. All these results suggested that the frame of the circadian clock appeared to be conserved not only between the two Lemna plants but also between monocotyledons and dicotyledons. However, divergence of gene numbers and expression profiles for LHY/CCA1 homologs were found between Lemna, rice and Arabidopsis, suggesting that some modification of clock-related components occurred through their evolution.

Keywords: Bioluminescent reporters; Circadian rhythm; Clock-related genes; Lemna; LHY/CCA1; Photoperiodic flowering; CT, circadian time; LD, long-day; PRR, pseudo-response regulator; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; SD, short-day; ZT, Zeitgeber time

Journal Article.  8491 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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