Journal Article

<i>Arabidopsis</i> Clock-Associated Pseudo-Response Regulators PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 Coordinately and Positively Regulate Flowering Time Through the Canonical CONSTANS-Dependent Photoperiodic Pathway

Norihito Nakamichi, Masanori Kita, Kanae Niinuma, Shogo Ito, Takafumi Yamashino, Tsuyoshi Mizoguchi and Takeshi Mizuno

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 48, issue 6, pages 822-832
Published in print June 2007 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online June 2007 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcm056
Arabidopsis Clock-Associated Pseudo-Response Regulators PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 Coordinately and Positively Regulate Flowering Time Through the Canonical CONSTANS-Dependent Photoperiodic Pathway

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  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Photoperiodism allows organisms to measure daylength, or external photoperiod, and to anticipate coming seasons. Daylength measurement requires the integration of light signal and temporal information by the circadian clock. In the long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, CONSTANS (CO) plays a crucial role in integrating the circadian rhythm and environmental light signals into the photoperiodic flowering pathway. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism by which the circadian clock modulates the cyclic expression profile of CO is poorly understood. Here, we first showed that the clock-associated genes PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 are involved in activation of CO expression during the daytime. Then, extensive genetic studies using CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) double mutants (cca1/lhy) and prr7/prr5 were conducted. The results suggested that PRR genes act coordinately in a manner parallel with and antagonistic to CCA/LHY, upstream of the canonical CO–FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) photoperiodic flowering pathway. Finally, we provided evidence to propose a model, in which CCA1/LHY repress CO through GIGANTEA (GI), while PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 activate CO predominantly by repressing CYCLING DOF FACTOR1 (CDF1) encoding a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; Circadian rhythm; CO–FT; Photoperiodic flowering; PRR

Journal Article.  6156 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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