Journal Article

Engineering of the Rose Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway Successfully Generated Blue-Hued Flowers Accumulating Delphinidin

Yukihisa Katsumoto, Masako Fukuchi-Mizutani, Yuko Fukui, Filippa Brugliera, Timothy A. Holton, Mirko Karan, Noriko Nakamura, Keiko Yonekura-Sakakibara, Junichi Togami, Alix Pigeaire, Guo-Qing Tao, Narender S. Nehra, Chin-Yi Lu, Barry K. Dyson, Shinzo Tsuda, Toshihiko Ashikari, Takaaki Kusumi, John G. Mason and Yoshikazu Tanaka

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 48, issue 11, pages 1589-1600
Published in print November 2007 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online November 2007 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcm131
Engineering of the Rose Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway Successfully Generated Blue-Hued Flowers Accumulating Delphinidin

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Flower color is mainly determined by anthocyanins. Rosa hybrida lacks violet to blue flower varieties due to the absence of delphinidin-based anthocyanins, usually the major constituents of violet and blue flowers, because roses do not possess flavonoid 3′,5′-hydoxylase (F3′5′H), a key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Other factors such as the presence of co-pigments and the vacuolar pH also affect flower color. We analyzed the flavonoid composition of hundreds of rose cultivars and measured the pH of their petal juice in order to select hosts of genetic transformation that would be suitable for the exclusive accumulation of delphinidin and the resulting color change toward blue. Expression of the viola F3′5′H gene in some of the selected cultivars resulted in the accumulation of a high percentage of delphinidin (up to 95%) and a novel bluish flower color. For more exclusive and dominant accumulation of delphinidin irrespective of the hosts, we down-regulated the endogenous dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene and overexpressed the Iris×hollandica DFR gene in addition to the viola F3′5′H gene in a rose cultivar. The resultant roses exclusively accumulated delphinidin in the petals, and the flowers had blue hues not achieved by hybridization breeding. Moreover, the ability for exclusive accumulation of delphinidin was inherited by the next generations.

Keywords: Anthocyanin; Delphinidin; Flavonoid; Flower color; Metabolic engineering; Rosa hybrida

Journal Article.  7004 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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