Journal Article

Generation of Hydroxyl Radical in Isolated Pea Root Cell Wall, and the Role of Cell Wall-Bound Peroxidase, Mn-SOD and Phenolics in Their Production

Biljana Kukavica, Miloš Mojović, Željko Vucčinić, Vuk Maksimović, Umeo Takahama and Sonja Veljović Jovanović

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 50, issue 2, pages 304-317
Published in print February 2009 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online December 2008 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcn199
Generation of Hydroxyl Radical in Isolated Pea Root Cell Wall, and the Role of Cell Wall-Bound Peroxidase, Mn-SOD and Phenolics in Their Production

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The hydroxyl radical produced in the apoplast has been demonstrated to facilitate cell wall loosening during cell elongation. Cell wall-bound peroxidases (PODs) have been implicated in hydroxyl radical formation. For this mechanism, the apoplast or cell walls should contain the electron donors for (i) H2O2 formation from dioxygen; and (ii) the POD-catalyzed reduction of H2O2 to the hydroxyl radical. The aim of the work was to identify the electron donors in these reactions. In this report, hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in the cell wall isolated from pea roots was detected in the absence of any exogenous reductants, suggesting that the plant cell wall possesses the capacity to generate ·OH in situ. Distinct POD and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) isoforms different from other cellular isoforms were shown by native gel electropho‑resis to be preferably bound to the cell walls. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of cell wall isolates containing the spin-trapping reagent, 5-diethoxyphosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO), was used for detection of and differentiation between ·OH and the superoxide radical (O2·). The data obtained using POD inhibitors confirmed that tightly bound cell wall PODs are involved in DEPMPO/OH adduct formation. A decrease in DEPMPO/OH adduct formation in the presence of H2O2 scavengers demonstrated that this hydroxyl radical was derived from H2O2. During the generation of ·OH, the concentration of quinhydrone structures (as detected by EPR spectroscopy) increased, suggesting that the H2O2 required for the formation of ·OH in isolated cell walls is produced during the reduction of O2 by hydroxycinnamic acids. Cell wall isolates in which the proteins have been denaturated (including the endogenous POD and SOD) did not produce ·OH. Addition of exogenous H2O2 again induced the production of ·OH, and these were shown to originate from the Fenton reaction with tightly bound metal ions. However, the appearance of the DEPMPO/OOH adduct could also be observed, due to the production of O2· when endogenous SOD has been inactivated. Also, O2· was converted to ·OH in an in vitro horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H2O2 system to which exogenous SOD has been added. Taken together with the discovery of the cell wall-bound Mn-SOD isoform, these results support the role of such a cell wall-bound SOD in the formation of ·OH jointly with the cell wall-bound POD. According to the above findings, it seems that the hydroxycinnamic acids from the cell wall, acting as reductants, contribute to the formation of H2O2 in the presence of O2 in an autocatalytic manner, and that POD and Mn-SOD coupled together generate ·OH from such H2O2.

Keywords: Cell wall isolates; Hydroxycinnamic acids; Hydroxyl radical; Pea root; Peroxidase; Quinhydrone structures

Journal Article.  7633 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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