Journal Article

Differential Positioning of C<sub>4</sub> Mesophyll and Bundle Sheath Chloroplasts: Aggregative Movement of C<sub>4</sub> Mesophyll Chloroplasts in Response to Environmental Stresses

Masahiro Yamada, Michio Kawasaki, Tatsuo Sugiyama, Hiroshi Miyake and Mitsutaka Taniguchi

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 50, issue 10, pages 1736-1749
Published in print October 2009 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online October 2009 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcp116
Differential Positioning of C4 Mesophyll and Bundle Sheath Chloroplasts: Aggregative Movement of C4 Mesophyll Chloroplasts in Response to Environmental Stresses

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In C4 plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts are randomly distributed along the cell walls, while bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts are typically located in either a centripetal or centrifugal position. We investigated whether these intracellular positions are affected by environmental stresses. When mature leaves of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) were exposed to extremely high intensity light, most M chloroplasts aggregatively re-distributed to the BS side, whereas the intracellular arrangement of BS chloroplasts was unaffected. Compared with the homologous light-avoidance movement of M chloroplasts in C3 plants, it requires extremely high light (3,000–4,000 μmol m−2 s−1) and responds more slowly (distinctive movement observed in 1 h). The high light-induced movement of M chloroplasts was also observed in maize (Zea mays), another C4 species, but with a distinct pattern of redistribution along the sides of anticlinal walls, analogous to C3 plants. The aggregative movement of M chloroplasts occurred at normal light intensities (250–500 μmol m−2 s−1) in response to environmental stresses, such as drought, salinity and hyperosmosis. Moreover, the re-arrangement of M chloroplasts was observed in field-grown C4 plants when exposed to mid-day sunlight, but also under midsummer drought conditions. The migration of M chloroplasts was controlled by actin filaments and also induced in a light-dependent fashion upon incubation with ABA, which may be the physiological signal transducer. Together these results suggest that M and BS cells of C4 plants have different mechanisms controlling intracellular chloroplast positioning, and that the aggregative movement of C4 M chloroplasts is thought to be a protective response under environmental stress conditions.

Keywords: C4 photosynthesis; Chloroplast; Eleusine coracana; Environmental stress; Photo-relocation movement; Zea mays

Journal Article.  7060 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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