Journal Article

Inactivation of Duplicated Nod Factor Receptor 5 (NFR5) Genes in Recessive Loss-of-Function Non-Nodulation Mutants of Allotetraploid Soybean (<i>Glycine max</i> L. Merr.)

Arief Indrasumunar, Attila Kereszt, Iain Searle, Mikiko Miyagi, Dongxue Li, Cuc D.T. Nguyen, Artem Men, Bernard J. Carroll and Peter M. Gresshoff

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 51, issue 2, pages 201-214
Published in print February 2010 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online December 2009 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcp178
Inactivation of Duplicated Nod Factor Receptor 5 (NFR5) Genes in Recessive Loss-of-Function Non-Nodulation Mutants of Allotetraploid Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)

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Chemically induced non-nodulating nod139 and nn5 mutants of soybean (Glycine max) show no visible symptoms in response to rhizobial inoculation. Both exhibit recessive Mendelian inheritance suggesting loss of function. By allele determination and genetic complementation in nod139 and nn5, two highly related lipo-oligochitin LysM-type receptor kinase genes in Glycine max were cloned; they are presumed to be the critical nodulation-inducing (Nod) factor receptor similar to those of Lotus japonicus, pea and Medicago truncatula. These duplicated receptor genes were called GmNFR5α and GmNFR5β. Nonsense mutations in GmNFR5α and GmNFR5β were genetically complemented by both wild-type GmNFR5α and GmNFR5β in transgenic roots, indicating that both genes are functional. Both genes lack introns. In cultivar Williams82 GmNFR5α is located in chromosome 11 and in tandem with GmLYK7 (a related LysM receptor kinase gene), while GmNFR5β is in tandem with GmLYK4 in homologous chromosome 1, suggesting ancient synteny and regional segmental duplication. Both genes are wild type in G. soja CPI100070 and Harosoy63; however, a non-functional NFR5β allele (NFR5β*) was discovered in parental lines Bragg and Williams, which harbored an identical 1,407 bp retroelement-type insertion. This retroelement (GmRE-1) and related sequences are located in several soybean genome positions. Paradoxically, putatively unrelated soybean cultivars shared the same insertion, suggesting a smaller than anticipated genetic base in this crop. GmNFR5α but not GmNFR5β* was expressed in inoculated and uninoculated tap and lateral root portions at about 10–25% of GmATS1 (ATP synthase subunit 1), but not in trifoliate leaves and shoot tips.

Keywords: Gene duplication; Glycine max; GmNFR5; Nodulation; Retroelement; Symbiosis

Journal Article.  8207 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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