Journal Article

Atlas of Rice Grain Filling-Related Metabolism under High Temperature: Joint Analysis of Metabolome and Transcriptome Demonstrated Inhibition of Starch Accumulation and Induction of Amino Acid Accumulation

Hiromoto Yamakawa and Makoto Hakata

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 51, issue 5, pages 795-809
Published in print May 2010 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online March 2010 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcq034

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High temperature impairs grain filling by inhibiting the deposition of storage materials such as starch and protein. To comprehend its impact on grain filling metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), levels of metabolites and transcripts related to central pathways of metabolism were simultaneously determined in developing caryopses exposed to high temperature (33°C/28°C) and a control temperature (25°C/20°C) during the milky stage. A capillary electrophoresis-based metabolomic analysis revealed that high temperature increased the accumulation of sucrose and pyruvate/ oxaloacetate-derived amino acids and decreased levels of sugar phosphates and organic acids involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, respectively. A transcriptomic analysis using a whole genome-covering microarray unraveled the possible metabolic steps causing the shortage of storage materials under the elevated temperature. Starch deposition might be impaired by down-regulation of sucrose import/degradation and starch biosynthesis, and/or up-regulation of starch degradation as well as inefficient ATP production by an inhibited cytochrome respiration chain, as indicated by the response of gene expression to high temperature. Amino acid accumulation might be attributed to the heat-stable import of amino acids into the caryopsis and/or repression of protein synthesis especially the tRNA charging step under high temperature. An atlas showing the effect of high temperature on levels of metabolites and gene expression in the central metabolic pathways is presented.

Keywords: Gene expression; Grain filling; High temperature; Metabolome; Rice; Starch

Journal Article.  7322 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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