Journal Article

The CKH2/PKL Chromatin Remodeling Factor Negatively Regulates Cytokinin Responses in Arabidopsis Calli

Kaori Furuta, Minoru Kubo, Kiyomi Sano, Taku Demura, Hiroo Fukuda, Yao-Guang Liu, Daisuke Shibata and Tatsuo Kakimoto

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 52, issue 4, pages 618-628
Published in print April 2011 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online February 2011 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcr022
The CKH2/PKL Chromatin Remodeling Factor Negatively Regulates Cytokinin Responses in Arabidopsis Calli

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Cytokinins promote cell division and chloroplast development in tissue culture. We previously isolated two mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, ckh1 (cytokinin-hypersensitive 1) and ckh2, which produce rapidly growing green calli in response to lower levels of cytokinins than those found in the wild type. Here we report that the product of the CKH2 gene is PICKLE, a protein resembling the CHD3 class of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors. We also show that inhibition of histone deacetylase by trichostatin A (TSA) partially substituted for cytokinins, but not for auxin, in the promotion of callus growth, indicating that chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation are intimately related to cytokinin-induced callus growth. A microarray experiment revealed that either the ckh1 mutation or the ckh2 mutation caused hypersensitivity to cytokinins in terms of gene expression, especially of photosynthesis-related genes. The ckh1 and ckh2 mutations up-regulated nuclear-encoded genes, but not plastid-encoded genes, whereas TSA deregulated both nuclear- and plastid-encoded genes. The ckh1 ckh2 double mutant showed synergistic phenotypes: the callus grew with a green color independently of exogenous cytokinins. A yeast two-hybrid experiment showed protein interaction between CKH1/EER4/AtTAF12b and CKH2/PKL. These results suggest that CKH1/EER4/AtTAF12b and CKH2/PKL may act together on cytokinin-regulated genes.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; Chromatin remodeling; CKH2; Cytokinin; Histone deacetylation; PICKLE

Journal Article.  6642 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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