Journal Article

The KAC Family of Kinesin-Like Proteins is Essential for the Association of Chloroplasts with the Plasma Membrane in Land Plants

Noriyuki Suetsugu, Yoshikatsu Sato, Hidenori Tsuboi, Masahiro Kasahara, Takato Imaizumi, Takatoshi Kagawa, Yuji Hiwatashi, Mitsuyasu Hasebe and Masamitsu Wada

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 53, issue 11, pages 1854-1865
Published in print November 2012 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online October 2012 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcs133
The KAC Family of Kinesin-Like Proteins is Essential for the Association of Chloroplasts with the Plasma Membrane in Land Plants

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  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Plant Sciences and Forestry

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Chloroplasts require association with the plasma membrane for movement in response to light and for appropriate positioning within the cell to capture photosynthetic light efficiently. In Arabidopsis, CHLOROPLAST UNUSUAL POSITIONING 1 (CHUP1), KINESIN-LIKE PROTEIN FOR ACTIN-BASED CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT 1 (KAC1) and KAC2 are required for both the proper movement of chloroplasts and the association of chloroplasts with the plasma membrane, through the reorganization of short actin filaments located on the periphery of the chloroplasts. Here, we show that KAC and CHUP1 orthologs (AcKAC1, AcCHUP1A and AcCHUP1B, and PpKAC1 and PpKAC2) play important roles in chloroplast positioning in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The knockdown of AcKAC1 and two AcCHUP1 genes induced the aggregation of chloroplasts around the nucleus. Analyses of A. capillus-veneris mutants containing perinuclear-aggregated chloroplasts confirmed that AcKAC1 is required for chloroplast–plasma membrane association. In addition, P. patens lines in which two KAC genes had been knocked out showed an aggregated chloroplast phenotype similar to that of the fern kac1 mutants. These results indicate that chloroplast positioning and movement are mediated through the activities of KAC and CHUP1 proteins, which are conserved in land plants.

Keywords: Actin filaments; Adiantum; Chloroplast movement; Fern; Phototropin; Physcomitrella patens

Journal Article.  7670 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Biochemistry ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry

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