Journal Article

Ten-Year Recovery Outcomes for Clients With Co-Occurring Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders

Robert E. Drake, Gregory J. McHugo, Haiyi Xie, Melinda Fox, Joan Packard and Barbara Helmstetter

in Schizophrenia Bulletin

Published on behalf of Maryland Psychiatric Research Center

Volume 32, issue 3, pages 464-473
Published in print July 2006 | ISSN: 0586-7614
Published online March 2006 | e-ISSN: 1745-1701 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbj064
Ten-Year Recovery Outcomes for Clients With Co-Occurring Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders

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The long-term courses of people with schizophrenia and of those with substance use disorder have been studied separately and extensively. The long-term course of clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders has, however, not been examined. This article reports 10-year outcomes for 130 clients with co-occurring schizophrenic and substance use disorders in the New Hampshire Dual Diagnosis Study. In addition, we report on 6 “recovery outcomes,” identified by dual diagnosis clients, as examples of positive coping behaviors. Longitudinal data were modeled using generalized estimating equation (GEE) methods. Participants improved steadily over 10 years in the outcome domains of symptoms, substance abuse, institutionalization, functional status, and quality of life. Further, at the 10-year follow-up, substantial proportions were above cutoffs selected by dual diagnosis clients as indicators of recovery: 62.7% were controlling symptoms of schizophrenia; 62.5% were actively attaining remissions from substance abuse; 56.8% were in independent living situations; 41.4% were competitively employed; 48.9% had regular social contacts with non–substance abusers; and 58.3% expressed overall life satisfaction. These 6 outcomes were only weakly interrelated over time, suggesting that recovery, as defined by clients, is a multidimensional concept. Overall, the 10-year findings on recovery outcomes provide a hopeful long-term perspective for dual diagnosis clients.

Keywords: dual diagnosis; co-occurring disorders; substance abuse

Journal Article.  5321 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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