Journal Article

DNA-Damaging Effects of Genotoxins in Mixture: Modulation of Covalent Binding to DNA

Matthew K. Ross, Boctor Said and Ronald C. Shank

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 53, issue 2, pages 224-236
Published in print February 2000 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online February 2000 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/53.2.224
DNA-Damaging Effects of Genotoxins in Mixture: Modulation of Covalent Binding to DNA

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Modulation of DNA adduct formation by pre-existing adducts was examined in synthetic oligonucleotides and genomic DNA (calf thymus); genotoxins studied were N-acetoxy-acetylaminofluorene (N-AcO-AAF), aminofluorene (AF), aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFB1-8,9-epoxide), and dimethylsulfate (DMS). Oligodeoxynucleotides containing either guanine-C8-AAF (Gua-C8-AAF) or Gua-C8-AF adducts and a neighboring unadducted guanine (G) (target G), located 1, 2, or 4 nucleotides from the adduct, were reacted, as single- (ss) or double-stranded (ds) substrates, with dimethylsulfate (DMS) or AFB1-8,9-epoxide. A modified Maxam-Gilbert technique showed that the presence of the AAF adduct lowered the extent to which AFB1-8,9-epoxide, but not DMS, reacted with target G. Binding of AFB1-8,9-epoxide to the target G was attenuated (≥5-fold) when the target was located immediately adjacent to an AAF, but not AF, adduct in ds-DNA. Reaction with AFB1-8,9-epoxide increased when the target G was located 2 or 4 nucleotides from the AAF adduct. Pretreatment of calf thymus DNA with AAF (0–1.8% nucleotides modified) reduced levels of Gua-N7-AFB1 adducts formed after subsequent treatment with AFB1-8,9-epoxide. Pretreatment of calf thymus DNA with AFB1 did not alter levels of adducts formed after subsequent treatment with N-AcO-AAF. The supposition that aflatoxin B1-binding to DNA may be altered by conformational changes in the helix, due to the presence of a pre-existing AAF adduct, is supported by the absence of an effect by AF and confirmation of local denaturation of the oligomer helix by use of chemical probes hydroxylamine and diethylpyrocarbonate. Nonetheless, the importance of changes in the nucleophilicity of neighboring nucleotides and local steric effects cannot be ruled out.

Keywords: guanine adducts; aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); AFB1-8,9-epoxide; N-acetoxy-acetylaminofluorine (N-AcO-AAF); dimethylsulfate (DMS); mixtures

Journal Article.  7756 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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