Journal Article

Efficient Protection of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells against Sulfur and Nitrogen Mustard Cytotoxicity Using Drug Combinations

S. Rappeneau, A. Baeza-Squiban, F. Marano and J.-H. Calvet

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 58, issue 1, pages 153-160
Published in print November 2000 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online November 2000 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/58.1.153
Efficient Protection of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells against Sulfur and Nitrogen Mustard Cytotoxicity Using Drug Combinations

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The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of several candidate molecules against sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (HN2) using a human bronchial-epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). Candidate molecules were chosen on the basis of the known cytotoxicity mechanisms of mustards or their efficacy previously observed on other cellular models. It included the sulfhydryl-containing molecules N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and WR-1065, the nucleophile hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), the energy-level stabilizer niacinamide (NC), the antioxidant dimethylthiourea (DMTU), L-arginine analogues such as L-thiocitrulline (L-TC) and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and the anti-gelatinase doxycycline (DOX). Their efficacy was determined using 2-(4-[3-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2Htetrazolium (WST-1) reduction by viable cells 24 h after initial exposure to 100 μM HN2 or SM. On individual immediate cotreatment, some molecules exhibited selective protection against only one mustard, such as DMTU and WR-1065 against HN2 and DOX against SM, whereas NAC and L-TC were effective against both SM and HN2 cytotoxicity. However, as the level of protection against SM was always weak compared to HN2, several combinations were investigated against SM to improve the protection. The effective combinations (L-TC + DOX, NAC + DOX, NAC + DMTU, NAC + HMT, NC + DOX) combined agents, reducing the bioavailability of the mustard with compounds possibly acting on the consequences of alkylation. One of these combinations, NAC + DOX, appeared to be the most interesting, as these agents are already used in human therapy. It exhibited good efficacy in delayed cotreatment (up to 90 min) against SM.

Keywords: sulfur mustard; nitrogen mustard; comparative protection; respiratory epithelium in culture

Journal Article.  5739 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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