Journal Article

Mutagenicity and <i>in Vivo</i> Toxicity of Combined Particulate and Semivolatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

JeanClare Seagrave, Jacob D. McDonald, Andrew P. Gigliotti, Kristen J. Nikula, Steven K. Seilkop, Michael Gurevich and Joe L. Mauderly

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 70, issue 2, pages 212-226
Published in print December 2002 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online December 2002 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/70.2.212
Mutagenicity and in Vivo Toxicity of Combined Particulate and Semivolatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions

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Exposure to engine emissions is associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the relative effects of emissions produced by different operating conditions, fuels, or technologies. Rapid screening techniques are needed to compare the biological effects of emissions with different characteristics. Here, we examined a set of engine emission samples using conventional bioassays. The samples included combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound fractions of emissions collected from normal- and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles collected at 72°F, and from normal-emitter groups collected at 30°F. The relative potency of the samples was determined by statistical analysis of the dose-response curves. All samples induced bacterial mutagenicity, with a 10-fold range of potency among the samples. Responses to intratracheal instillation in rats indicated generally parallel rankings of the samples by multiple endpoints reflecting cytotoxic, inflammatory, and lung parenchymal changes, allowing selection of a more limited set of parameters for future studies. The parameters selected to assess oxidative stress and macrophage function yielded little useful information. Responses to instillation indicated little difference in potency per unit of combined particulate material and semivolatile organic compound mass between normal-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles, or between emissions collected at different temperatures. However, equivalent masses of emissions from high-emitter vehicles of both types were more potent than those from normal-emitters. While preliminary in terms of assessing contributions of different emissions to health hazards, the results indicate that a subset of this panel of assays will be useful in providing rapid, cost-effective feedback on the biological impact of modified technology.

Keywords: exhaust emissions; diesel; gasoline; comparative toxicity; intratracheal instillation; mutagenicity; particulate material; semivolatile organic compounds

Journal Article.  12783 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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