Journal Article

Characterizing the Influence of Structure and Route of Exposure on the Disposition of Dithiocarbamates Using Toluene-3,4-dithiol Analysis of Blood and Urinary Carbon Disulfide Metabolites

D. J. Johnson, V. Amarnath, K. Amarnath, H. Valentine and W. M. Valentine

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 76, issue 1, pages 65-74
Published in print November 2003 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online November 2003 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfg226
Characterizing the Influence of Structure and Route of Exposure on the Disposition of Dithiocarbamates Using Toluene-3,4-dithiol Analysis of Blood and Urinary Carbon Disulfide Metabolites

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Differences in the toxicities observed for dithiocarbamates have been proposed to result from the influence of nitrogen substitution, oxidation state, and route of exposure. To better characterize the fate of dithiocarbmates in vivoas a function of structure and route of exposure, rats were administered equimolar doses of carbon disulfide (CS2), N-methyldithiocarbamate, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, or disulfiram daily for five days, either po or ip, and sequential blood samples obtained. Protein dithiocarbamates formed by the in vivo release of CS2, parent dithiocarbamate, and protein-bound mixed disulfides were assessed in plasma and hemolysate by measuring toluene trithiocarbonate generated upon treatment with toluene-3, 4-dithiol (TdT). To aid in determining the bioavailability of CS2 from the administered dithiocarbamates, the urinary CS2 metabolites, 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) and 2-thiothiazolidin-4-ylcarbonylglycine (TTCG), were also determined. The levels of TdT-reactive moieties detected depended upon both the compound administered and the route of exposure. Parent dithiocarbamates, with the exception of disulfiram, were eliminated from blood within 24 h; but protein associated TdT-reactive moieties persisted and accumulated with repeated exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. N-Methyldithiocarbamate demonstrated the greatest potential to produce intracellular globin modifications, presumably through its unique ability to generate a methylisothiocyanate metabolite. Urinary excretion of TTCA and TTCG was more sensitive than TdT analysis for detecting dithiocarbamate exposure, but TdT analysis appeared to be a better indicator of in vivo release of CS2 by dithiocarbamates than were urinary CS2 metabolites. These data suggest that CS2 is a more important metabolite, following oral exposure, than are other routes of exposure, e.g., inhalation or dermal. In addition, data also suggest that acid stability, nitrogen substitution, and route of exposure are important factors governing the toxicity observed for a particular dithiocarbamate.

Keywords: N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate; N-methyldithiocarbamate; pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate; disulfiram; carbon disulfide; neurotoxicity; hepatotoxicity; toluene-3,4-dithiol; 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; 2-thiothiazolidin-4-ylcarbonylglycine

Journal Article.  6912 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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