Journal Article

Role of Fibrinogen and Protease-Activated Receptors in Acute Xenobiotic-Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury

James P. Luyendyk, Nigel Mackman and Bradley P. Sullivan

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 119, issue 1, pages 233-243
Published in print January 2011 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online October 2010 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq327
Role of Fibrinogen and Protease-Activated Receptors in Acute Xenobiotic-Induced Cholestatic Liver Injury

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Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)–induced cholestatic liver injury causes tissue factor (TF)–dependent coagulation in mice, and TF deficiency reduces ANIT-induced liver injury. However, the mechanism whereby TF contributes to hepatotoxicity in this model is not known. Utilizing pharmacological and genetic strategies, we evaluated the contribution of fibrinogen and two distinct receptors for thrombin, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-4, in a model of acute ANIT hepatotoxicity. ANIT administration (60 mg/kg, po) caused a marked induction of the genes encoding the three fibrinogen chains (α, β, and γ) in liver, an increase in plasma fibrinogen, and concurrent deposition of thrombin-cleaved fibrin in liver. Partial depletion of circulating fibrinogen with ancrod did not impact ANIT hepatotoxicity. However, complete fibrin(ogen) deficiency significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity and hepatocellular necrosis in ANIT-treated mice. ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was similar in PAR-1−/− mice compared with PAR-1+/+ mice. Interestingly, the progression of ANIT-induced hepatocellular necrosis was significantly reduced in PAR-4−/− mice and by administration of an inhibitory PAR-4 pepducin (P4Pal-10, 0.5 mg/kg, sc) to wild-type mice 8 h after ANIT treatment. Interestingly, a distinct lesion, parenchymal-type peliosis, was also observed in PAR-4−/− mice treated with ANIT and in mice that were given P4Pal-10 prior to ANIT administration. The results suggest that fibrin(ogen), but not PAR-1, contributes to the progression of ANIT hepatotoxicity in mice. Moreover, the data suggest a dual role for PAR-4 in ANIT hepatotoxicity, both mediating an early protection against peliosis and contributing to the progression of hepatocellular necrosis.

Keywords: alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate; coagulation; liver; protease-activated receptors; fibrin; hepatotoxicity

Journal Article.  4678 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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