Journal Article

Assessment of Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Kidney Injury in Cynomolgus Monkeys Treated with a Triple Reuptake Inhibitor

Mausumee Guha, Annabelle Heier, Sally Price, Margareta Bielenstein, Robert G. Caccese, Daniel I. Heathcote, Thomas R. Simpson, David B. Stong and Elmarie Bodes

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 120, issue 2, pages 269-283
Published in print April 2011 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online January 2011 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI:
Assessment of Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Kidney Injury in Cynomolgus Monkeys Treated with a Triple Reuptake Inhibitor

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  • Medical Toxicology
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Drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) results in attrition during drug development; new DIKI urinary biomarkers offer potential to detect and monitor DIKI progression and regression, but frequently only in rats. The triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI) PRC200-SS represents a new class of antidepressants that elevate synaptic levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine and is expected to produce more rapid onset and better antidepressant efficacy than single or dual inhibitors. Although preclinical studies and recent clinical trials lend support to this concept of superior efficacy for TRIs, there is little information on the safety profile of this class of compounds. Using histopathology and DIKI biomarkers, in single- and repeat dose toxicological studies in cynomolgus monkeys, PRC200-SS demonstrated dose-proportional kidney toxicity. Characterization of the histopathological lesions, using a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and urinary biomarker analysis, indicated that the compound is a distal tubule and collecting duct toxicant. Segment specificity for the lesions was shown using a newly developed triple IHC combination method with antibodies against calbindin D28, aquaporin 2, and aquaporin 1. Urinary biomarker analyses, using multiplex immunoassays, confirmed a dose-proportional increase in the excretion of calbindin D28 and clusterin in compound-treated monkeys with levels returning to baseline during the drug-free recovery period. These results constitute the validation of distal nephron DIKI biomarkers in the cynomolgus monkey and demonstrate the utility of calbindin D28 and clusterin to monitor the progression of distal nephron DIKI, representing potential early biomarkers of DIKI for the clinic.

Keywords: triple reuptake inhibitor; drug-induced kidney toxicity; biomarkers; multiplex immunoassays; cynomolgus monkey

Journal Article.  9064 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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