Journal Article

Individual Variability in the Detoxification of Carcinogenic Arylhydroxylamines in Human Breast

Keelia Rhoads, James C. Sacco, Nicholas Drescher, Amos Wong and Lauren A. Trepanier

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 121, issue 2, pages 245-256
Published in print June 2011 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online March 2011 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfr073
Individual Variability in the Detoxification of Carcinogenic Arylhydroxylamines in Human Breast

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Cytochrome b5 (b5) and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) detoxify reactive hydroxylamine (NHOH) metabolites of known arylamine and heterocyclic amine mammary carcinogens. The aim of this study was to determine whether NHOH reduction for the prototypic arylamine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) was present in human breast and to determine whether variability in activity was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding, promoter, and 3′untranslated region (UTR) regions of the genes encoding b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3). 4-ABP-NHOH reduction was readily detected in pooled human breast microsomes, with a Km (280μM) similar to that found with recombinant b5 and b5R, and a Vmax of 1.12 ± 0.19 nmol/min/mg protein 4-ABP-NHOH reduction varied 75-fold across 70 individual breast samples and correlated significantly with both b5 (80-fold variability) and b5R (14-fold) immunoreactive protein. In addition, wide variability in b5 protein expression was significantly associated with variability in CYB5A transcript levels, with a trend toward the same association between b5R and CYB5R3. Although a sample with a novel coding SNP in CYB5A, His22Arg, was found with low reduction and b5 expression, no other SNPs in either gene were associated with outlier activity or protein expression. We conclude that b5 and b5R catalyze the reduction of 4-ABP-NHOH in breast tissue, with very low activity, protein, and messenger RNA expression in some samples, which cannot be attributed to promoter, coding, or 3′UTR SNPs. Further studies are underway to characterize the transcriptional regulation of CYB5A and CYB5R3 and begin to understand the mechanisms of individual variability in this detoxification pathway.

Keywords: hydroxylamine; 4-aminobiphenyl; cytochrome b5; cytochrome b5 reductase

Journal Article.  6573 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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