Journal Article

Standardized Extracts of <i>Bacopa monniera</i> Protect Against MPP<sup>+</sup>- and Paraquat-Induced Toxicity by Modulating Mitochondrial Activities, Proteasomal Functions, and Redox Pathways

Manjeet Singh, Ven Murthy and Charles Ramassamy

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 125, issue 1, pages 219-232
Published in print January 2012 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online October 2011 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI:
Standardized Extracts of Bacopa monniera Protect Against MPP+- and Paraquat-Induced Toxicity by Modulating Mitochondrial Activities, Proteasomal Functions, and Redox Pathways

More Like This

Show all results sharing these subjects:

  • Medical Toxicology
  • Toxicology (Non-medical)


Show Summary Details


Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases and affects millions of people worldwide. Strong evidence supports the role of free radicals, oxidative stress, mitochondrial, and proteasomal dysfunctions underlying neuronal death in PD. Environmental factors, especially pesticides, represent one of the primary classes of neurotoxic agents associated with PD, and several epidemiological studies have identified the exposure of the herbicide paraquat (PQ) as a potential risk factor for the onset of PD. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera (BM) against PQ-induced and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium iodide (MPP+)–induced toxicities and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Our results show that a pretreatment with the BM extract from 50 μg/ml protected the dopaminergic SK-N-SH cell line against MPP+- and PQ-induced toxicities in various cell survival assays. We demonstrate that BM pretreatment prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) besides preserving the mitochondrial membrane potential and maintaining the mitochondrial complex I activity. BM pretreatment from 10.0 μg/ml also prevented the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide level. BM treatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 pathway by modulating the expression of Keap1, thereby upregulating the endogenous GSH synthesis. The effect of BM on the phosphorylation of Akt further strengthens its role in the promotion of cell survival. By preserving the cellular redox homeostasis and mitochondrial activities and by promoting cell survival pathways, BM extract may have therapeutic uses in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease; oxidative stress; Bacopa monniera; redox regulation; complex I

Journal Article.  8106 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.