Journal Article

The Dysregulation of the Monocyte/Macrophage Effector Function Induced by Isopropanol Is Mediated by the Defective Activation of Distinct Members of the AP-1 Family of Transcription Factors

Damien Carignan, Olivier Désy and Pedro O. de Campos-Lima

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 125, issue 1, pages 144-156
Published in print January 2012 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online October 2011 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfr283
The Dysregulation of the Monocyte/Macrophage Effector Function Induced by Isopropanol Is Mediated by the Defective Activation of Distinct Members of the AP-1 Family of Transcription Factors

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Isopropanol is the second most common cause of short-chain alcohol acute intoxication. Nonethanolic short-chain alcohols mediate their immunomodulatory effect by interfering with nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation with or without additional activator protein-1 (AP-1) involvement. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulation induced by isopropanol in conditions that are not reliant on NFAT: the inflammatory cytokine response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes. Our hypothesis was that isopropanol acute exposure would have an attenuated effect or no consequence in this setting. To our surprise, the impairment of AP-1 activation was sufficient to mediate a severe and dose-dependent phenotype in human monocytes in vitro at alcohol concentrations as low as 0.16% (or 26mM). There were three outcomes: interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-8 were unaltered; IL-6 was upregulated; and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/CCL2 were downregulated. The effector function of human monocyte-derived macrophages was also compromised. Our results showed that Toll-like receptor 4 early signaling was preserved, as isopropanol did not change the kinase activity of the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 in LPS-stimulated cells. The nuclear factor-κB signaling cascade and the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase modules of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were alcohol insensitive. Conversely, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and, ultimately, of c-Fos and JunB were impaired. The alcohol-induced cytokine dysregulation was confirmed in a mouse model of isopropanol intoxication in which the production of TNF-α in response to LPS challenge was virtually abolished. The magnitude of this alcohol effect was sufficiently high to rescue animals from LPS-induced toxic shock. Our data contribute to the dismal body of information on the immunotoxicology of isopropanol, one of the most ubiquitous chemicals to which the general population is significantly exposed.

Keywords: immunomodulation; immunosuppression; isopropanol; monocyte; macrophage; cytokine; immunotoxicology

Journal Article.  9175 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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