Journal Article

Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

Cynthia V. Rider, Michael L. Dourson, Richard C. Hertzberg, Moiz M. Mumtaz, Paul S. Price and Jane Ellen Simmons

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 127, issue 1, pages 10-17
Published in print May 2012 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online February 2012 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI:
Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors Into Cumulative Risk Assessments

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  • Medical Toxicology
  • Toxicology (Non-medical)


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The role of nonchemical stressors in modulating the human health risk associated with chemical exposures is an area of increasing attention. On 9 March 2011, a workshop titled “Approaches for Incorporating Nonchemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment” took place during the 50th Anniversary Annual Society of Toxicology Meeting in Washington D.C. Objectives of the workshop included describing the current state of the science from various perspectives (i.e., regulatory, exposure, modeling, and risk assessment) and presenting expert opinions on currently available methods for incorporating nonchemical stressors into cumulative risk assessments. Herein, distinct frameworks for characterizing exposure to, joint effects of, and risk associated with chemical and nonchemical stressors are discussed.

Keywords: joint action; exposure; dose response; modeling

Journal Article.  5483 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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