Journal Article

Differential Inhibition of Electron Transport Chain Enzyme Complexes by Cadmium and Calcium in Isolated Rainbow Trout (<i>Oncorhynchus mykiss</i>) Hepatic Mitochondria

Reginald C. Adiele, Don Stevens and Collins Kamunde

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 127, issue 1, pages 110-119
Published in print May 2012 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online February 2012 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs091
Differential Inhibition of Electron Transport Chain Enzyme Complexes by Cadmium and Calcium in Isolated Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Hepatic Mitochondria

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Impairment of the electron transport chain (ETC) is implicated in cadmium (Cd)- and calcium (Ca)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To localize the sites of the impairment, effects of 0–50μM Cd and Ca, singly and in combination, on complex I- to IV-driven respirations were investigated using isolated rainbow trout liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial Cd/Ca accumulation and respiration rates were measured following sequential inhibition and activation of complexes I, II, III, and IV. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis was measured on exposure to (micromolar) 20 Cd and 50 Ca, singly and combined, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured on incubation with 0–1μM Cd and/or Ca. We show that mitochondrial accumulation of Cd and Ca and the states 3 and 4 rates of respiration depended on the active ETC complex. Although complex IV was highly recalcitrant to Cd and/or Ca, dose-dependent inhibitions of complex I-, II-, and III-driven state 3 respiration rates were observed with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (micromolar) 12.4, 12, and 13.7 (Cd); 57.1, 46.1, and 26.2 (Ca); and 8.3, 13.5, and 5.1 (Cd + Ca), respectively. The lower IC50 values for complex I- and III-mediated respirations in the Cd + Ca treatment suggests that these complexes are the sites of cooperative actions of Cd and Ca. State 4 respiration rates were unaffected by Cd and/or Ca exposure but reduced mitochondrial coupling was apparent from the lower respiratory control and adenosine diphosphate/O ratios except in mitochondria oxidizing complex IV substrate. Additionally, there was reduced ATP synthesis in complex I substrates–energized mitochondria and increased MDA concentrations symptomatic of membrane lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: cadmium; calcium; ETC complexes; ATP production; membrane peroxidation

Journal Article.  6722 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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