Journal Article

Assessing a Theoretical Risk of Dolutegravir-Induced Developmental Immunotoxicity in Juvenile Rats

Melissa Rhodes, Susan Laffan, Caroline Genell, Jill Gower, Curtis Maier, Tamio Fukushima, Garrett Nichols and Ashlyn Eaton Bassiri

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 130, issue 1, pages 70-81
Published in print November 2012 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online July 2012 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs220
Assessing a Theoretical Risk of Dolutegravir-Induced Developmental Immunotoxicity in Juvenile Rats

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HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (INIs) are a promising class of antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV in adults; there is interest in expanding their use into pediatric populations. A theoretical concern for developmental immunotoxicity was raised after a publication suggested that two HIV INI tool compounds inhibited in vitro cleavage activity of recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/2) through the inhibition of their binding to recombination signal sequences. RAG1/2 are required for the development of mature B and T lymphocyte populations. The potential effects of the investigational INI dolutegravir on RAG1/2 were addressed by developing assays in juvenile rats to measure T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ usage by flow cytometry as an indicator of TCR repertoire diversity and a T cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) as an indicator of immunosuppression. These endpoints were incorporated into a juvenile rat toxicity study, along with immunophenotyping, hematology, and histopathology of immunologic organs. Dose levels of 0, 0.5, 2, or 75mg/kg/day dolutegravir were given via oral gavage from postnatal day 4 through 66. At the highest dose, there was decreased body weight gain and two preweanling deaths; however, there were no treatment-related effects on developmental parameters. There were no effects on immunologic competence, as measured by TDAR, and no effects on lymphocyte subsets or CD4 and CD8 TCR Vβ usage in peripheral blood. Histopathology of immunologic organs (spleen, thymus, lymph nodes) and hematology evaluation revealed no effects. The no observed adverse effect level for immunotoxicity endpoints was 75mg/kg/day.

Keywords: integrase inhibitor; dolutegravir; developmental immunotoxicity; rat

Journal Article.  8402 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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