Journal Article

Hypoxia-Response Element (HRE)–Directed Transcriptional Regulation of the Rat Lysyl Oxidase Gene in Response to Cobalt and Cadmium

Song Gao, Jing Zhou, Yinzhi Zhao, Paul Toselli and Wande Li

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 132, issue 2, pages 379-389
Published in print April 2013 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online November 2012 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs327
Hypoxia-Response Element (HRE)–Directed Transcriptional Regulation of the Rat Lysyl Oxidase Gene in Response to Cobalt and Cadmium

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Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslink of collagen, elastin, and histone H1, stabilizing the extracellular matrix and cell nucleus. This enzyme displays dual functions for tumorigenesis, i.e., as a tumor suppressor inactivating the ras oncogene and as a tumor promoter enhancing malignant cell metastasis. To elucidate LO transcriptional regulation, we have cloned the 804 base pair region upstream of the translation start site (ATG) of the rat LO gene with the maximal promoter activity. Computer analysis indicated that at least four hypoxia-response element (HRE) consensuses (5′-ACGTG-3′) exist in the cloned LO promoter. Treatment of rat lung fibroblasts (RFL6) with CoCl2 (Co, 10–100 μM), a chemical hypoxia reagent, enhanced LO mRNA expression and promoter activities. Overexpression of LO was associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α at mRNA levels in cobalt (Co)–treated cells. Thus, LO is a hypoxia-responsive gene. Dominant negative-HIF-1α inhibited LO promoter activities stimulated by Co. Electrophoretic mobility shift, oligonucleotide competition, and in vitro translated HIF-1α binding assays indicated that only one HRE mapped at −387/−383 relative to ATG was functionally active among four consensuses. Site-directed mutation of this HRE significantly diminished the Co-induced and LO promoter-directed expression of the reporter gene. Cadmium (Cd), an inducer of reactive oxygen species, inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression and HIF-1α binding to the LO gene in Co-treated cells as revealed by RT-PCR and ChIP assays, respectively. Thus, modulation of the HRE activity by Co and Cd plays a critical role in LO gene transactivation.

Keywords: lysyl oxidase; cobalt; cadmium; hypoxia; hypoxia-response element; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α.

Journal Article.  7435 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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