Journal Article

Human Inhalation Exposures to Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and M-Xylene and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Exposure Biomarkers in Exhaled Air, Blood, and Urine

Axelle Marchand, Rocio Aranda-Rodriguez, Robert Tardif, Andy Nong and Sami Haddad

in Toxicological Sciences

Volume 144, issue 2, pages 414-424
Published in print April 2015 | ISSN: 1096-6080
Published online January 2015 | e-ISSN: 1096-0929 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfv009
Human Inhalation Exposures to Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and M-Xylene and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Exposure Biomarkers in Exhaled Air, Blood, and Urine

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Urinary biomarkers of exposure are used widely in biomonitoring studies. The commonly used urinary biomarkers for the aromatic solvents toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and m-xylene (X) are o-cresol, mandelic acid, and m-methylhippuric acid. The toxicokinetics of these biomarkers following inhalation exposure have yet to be described by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Five male volunteers were exposed for 6 h in an inhalation chamber to 1/8 or 1/4 of the time-weighted average exposure value (TWAEV) for each solvent: toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were quantified in blood and exhaled air and their corresponding urine biomarkers were measured in urine. Published PBPK model for parent compounds was used and simulations were compared with experimental blood and exhaled air concentration data. If discrepancies existed, Vmax and Km were optimized. Urinary excretion was modeled using parameters found in literature assuming simply stoichiometric yields from parent compound metabolism and first-order urinary excretion rate. Alternative models were also tested for (1) the possibility that CYP1A2 is the only enzyme implicated in o-cresol and (2) a 2-step model for describing serial metabolic steps for mandelic acid. Models adapted in this study for urinary excretion will be further used to interpret urinary biomarker kinetic data from mixed exposures of these solvents.

Keywords: biomarkers; PBPK modeling; inhalation; toluene; ethylbenzene; m-xylene

Journal Article.  5415 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medical Toxicology ; Toxicology (Non-medical)

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