Journal Article

Anatomy and morphology in developing vegetative buds on detached Norway spruce branches in controlled conditions before bud burst

Sirkka Sutinen, Jouni Partanen, Anneli Viherä-Aarnio and Risto Häkkinen

in Tree Physiology

Volume 29, issue 11, pages 1457-1465
Published in print November 2009 | ISSN: 0829-318X
Published online November 2009 | e-ISSN: 1758-4469 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpp078
Anatomy and morphology in developing vegetative buds on detached Norway spruce branches in controlled conditions before bud burst

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We studied the light and stereomicroscopic structure of developing vegetative buds from a 16-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] of southern Finnish origin in relation to temperature sum and to externally visible changes in the buds before and during bud burst in forcing conditions. Branches were collected on 17 January and transferred to the greenhouse where they were first subjected to preforcing conditions (darkness, +4 °C) for 7 days and then to the forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). Buds were sampled 20 times between 17 January and 13 February. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The first microscopic change was a temporary increase in the size and number of lipid droplets before the onset of temperature sum (T ≥ +5 °C) accumulation. From the 4th to the 9th day under the forcing conditions, tracheids started to develop from the base up to the top of the bud. This was closely synchronized with an observed morphological change in the shape of needle tip from rounded to pointed ones. Development from the first visible change in the bud scales on the 12th forcing day to bud burst took 9 days when the temperature sum was 313 d.d. The temperature sums in our experiment overestimated the requirements of temperature sum for bud development phases measured in the field. Bud development could be divided into four structural phases. The first two phases, i.e., morphological changes in the primary needles, occurred without any externally visible changes in the buds. Thus, these phases have a potential for testing and improving the phenological models, which, up to now, have mainly been based on the bud burst observation by the naked eye.

Keywords: bud development; forcing; microscopy; Picea abies; temperature

Journal Article.  6381 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Plant Sciences and Forestry

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