Journal Article

A 5-year PICU Experience of Disseminated Staphylococcal Disease, Part 2: Management, Critical Care Needs and Outcome

Arun K. Baranwal, Sunit C. Singhi and M. Jayashree

in Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Volume 53, issue 4, pages 252-258
Published in print August 2007 | ISSN: 0142-6338
Published online May 2007 | e-ISSN: 1465-3664 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmm023
A 5-year PICU Experience of Disseminated Staphylococcal Disease, Part 2: Management, Critical Care Needs and Outcome

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Staphylococcus aureus causes an impressive spectrum of disease in tropics and subtropics. Scanty data are available regarding disseminated staphylococcal disease (DSD) in children, especially on their critical care needs. It is important to recognize and prioritize patients who may benefit most from Pediatric Critical Care. The objective of this article is to review the, critical care needs, management and outcome of patients with DSD and to identify clinical indicators for need of critical care. The study setting is a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of an urban tertiary care teaching hospital in a developing economy. Fifty-three patients (age, 1 month to 12 years) with DSD, admitted to PICU during June 1994 to June 1999, form the subjects for the study. DSD was defined as involvement of at least two distant organs with presence of Gram-positive cocci in clusters and/or growth of S. aureus from at least one normally sterile body fluid. Data regarding demographic and clinical picture, microbiological profile, indication for PICU admission, monitoring needs, medical and surgical management and outcome was retrieved from the case records. Critical care problems included septic shock (28/53), pericardial effusion (21/53, cardiac tamponade in six), raised intracranial pressure (5 patients) and refractory status epilepticus (1 patient). The majority developed septic shock after first few doses of parenteral antimicrobials. They required an impressive amount of fluid [100 (56) ml/kg] during initial 6 h of resuscitation, and 90% had myocardial dysfunction requiring inotropic support. Tracheal intubation was needed in 18 (34%) and ventilatory support in 17 (32%) patients. About 60% patients had metabolic abnormalities. Soft tissue disease was associated with high risk of septic shock (RR, 1.77; P < 0.05). Presence of both septic shock and need for ventilation was associated with high mortality (RR, 20.5; P < 0.001). Patients with suspected DSD need intensive cardio-respiratory monitoring during initial 48–72 h of therapy; and those who develops shock, respiratory failure, pericardial effusion and necrotizing soft tissue disease should be prioritized for PICU admission.

Keywords: disseminated staphylococcal disease; Staphylococcus aureus; critical care; shock; children

Journal Article.  3542 words. 

Subjects: Paediatrics

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