Journal Article

Challenges to Treatment of Leukemia in HIV-positive Children

D. Cristina Stefan, Anel Dippenaar, Gerhard De Bruin, Ronelle Uys and Ronald van Toorn

in Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Volume 58, issue 6, pages 521-522
Published in print December 2012 | ISSN: 0142-6338
Published online March 2012 | e-ISSN: 1465-3664 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fms007
Challenges to Treatment of Leukemia in HIV-positive Children

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We describe the challenges to treatment of leukemia in three cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children with multiple infections and complications. Two of the three patients had acute myeloid leukemia and the other one acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two of the patients were known with HIV infection; the third was diagnosed on admission. All patients received antiretroviral therapy with standard doses of lamivudine, stavudine and efavirenz or lopinavir/retonavir. All three were diagnosed with Mycobacterium tuberculosis on one or more occasions: pulmonary or miliary involvement or tuberculous meningitis. One patient developed spinal paraplegia and needed an urgent laminectomy. Later he recovered almost completely. The interaction between antiretroviral and antituberculosis treatments combined with chemotherapy, antibiotics and supportive care is not known. Despite the severity and the complexity of several associated diseases, the outcome of the patients was rewarding and encouraging.

Keywords: leukemia; HIV; infection; children; Africa

Journal Article.  1016 words. 

Subjects: Paediatrics

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