Journal Article

Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002

Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay and Massimo Mastruzzi

in The World Bank Economic Review

Volume 18, issue 2, pages 253-287
Published in print June 2004 | ISSN: 0258-6770
Published online June 2004 | e-ISSN: 1564-698X | DOI:
Governance Matters III: Governance Indicators for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002

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Six dimensions of governance are estimated covering 199 countries and territories for four periods: 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002. The indicators are based on several hundred individual variables measuring perceptions of governance drawn from 25 data sources constructed by 18 organizations. These individual measures are assigned to categories capturing key dimensions of governance. An unobserved-components model is used to construct six aggregate governance indicators in each of the four periods. Point estimates of the dimensions of governance are provided as well as the margins of errors for each country for the four periods. Methodological issues are also addressed, including tests for potential biases, and the interpretation and use of the data, given the estimated margins of errors for the indicators. The data and a Web-based graphical interface are available online at

Journal Article.  0 words. 

Subjects: Development Planning and Policy

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