Journal Article

Electromagnetic induction by the equatorial electrojet

R. G. Rastogi

in Geophysical Journal International

Volume 158, issue 1, pages 16-31
Published in print July 2004 | ISSN: 0956-540X
Published online July 2004 | e-ISSN: 1365-246X | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02128.x
Electromagnetic induction by the equatorial electrojet

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Summary

This paper discusses the effects of currents induced inside the Earth at equatorial latitudes due to the currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. The horizontal (H), vertical (Z) and eastward (Y) components of the geomagnetic field at equatorial and low‐latitude stations around the world are examined for effects due to solar daily (Sq) variations during normal as well as counter electrojet days, during solar flares, during storm sudden commencements (SSCs) and during the main phase of the magnetic storms. The Sq(Z) variations show an abnormally large positive peak at Indian electrojet stations and to a lesser extent at Koror in the forenoon hours when the temporal gradient of Sq(H) is largest. At Indian longitudes this abnormality is largest during equinoxes and December solstices.

The nighttime bay disturbance, solar flares and SSC produce large impulses in the Z field at Indian stations and at Koror. The latitudinal extent of this abnormality is larger for events with shorter periods. The disturbance equatorial ring current produces a large decrease of Z field around the period in the middle of main phase of the storm when the Dst index is rapidly decreasing and not when Dst is most negative. A strong decrease in the Z field is observed at Yauca in the American sector during the main phase of the storm.

The induction effects on the equatorial electrojet seem to be absent in central and eastern parts of South America, and in the African region. The significant induction effects observed in the recording of the Z field at Peredinia in Sri Lanka suggest a wide latitude of abnormal conductivity anomaly distribution in the Indo‐Sri Lanka longitude sector. Our present understanding of the conductor being in Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka needs to be revised on the basis of results described in this paper.

Keywords: Equatorial electrojet; geomagnetic crochet; geomagnetic induction; magnetic storms

Journal Article.  12561 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Geophysics

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