Journal Article

A classification of the X-ray and radio states of Cyg X-3 and their long-term correlations

Anna Szostek, Andrzej A. Zdziarski and Michael L. McCollough

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 388, issue 3, pages 1001-1010
Published in print August 2008 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online July 2008 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI:
A classification of the X-ray and radio states of Cyg X-3 and their long-term correlations

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We present a detailed classification of the X-ray states of Cyg X-3 based on the spectral shape and a new classification of the radio states based on the long-term correlated behaviour of the radio and soft X-ray light curves. We find a sequence of correlations, starting with a positive correlation between the radio and soft X-ray fluxes in the hard spectral state, changing to a negative one at the transition to soft spectral states. The temporal evolution can be in either direction on that sequence, unless the source goes into a very weak radio state, from which it can return only following a major radio flare. The flare decline is via relatively bright radio states, which results in a hysteresis loop on the flux–flux diagram. We also study the hard X-ray light curve, and find its overall anticorrelation with the soft X-rays. During major radio flares, the radio flux responds exponentially to the level of a hard X-ray high-energy tail. We also specify the detailed correspondence between the radio states and the X-ray spectral states. We compare our results to those of black hole and neutron star binaries. Except for the effect of strong absorption and the energy of the high-energy break in the hard state, the X-ray spectral states of Cyg X-3 closely correspond to the canonical X-ray states of black hole binaries. Also, the radio/X-ray correlation closely corresponds to that found in black hole binaries, but it significantly differs from that in neutron star binaries. Overall, our results strongly support the presence of a black hole in Cyg X-3.

Keywords: accretion, accretion discs; binaries: general; stars: individual: Cyg X-3; radio continuum: stars; X-rays: binaries; X-rays: stars

Journal Article.  7529 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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