Journal Article

Kinematic properties of early-type galaxy haloes using planetary nebulae*

L. Coccato, O. Gerhard, M. Arnaboldi, P. Das, N. G. Douglas, K. Kuijken, M. R. Merrifield, N. R. Napolitano, E. Noordermeer, A. J. Romanowsky, M. Capaccioli, A. Cortesi, F. De Lorenzi and K. C. Freeman

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 394, issue 3, pages 1249-1283
Published in print April 2009 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online April 2009 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14417.x
Kinematic properties of early-type galaxy haloes using planetary nebulae*

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We present new planetary nebulae (PNe) positions, radial velocities and magnitudes for six early-type galaxies obtained with the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph (PNS), along with derived two-dimensional velocity and velocity dispersion fields, and the α parameters (i.e. the number of PNe per unit luminosity). We also present new deep absorption-line long-slit kinematics for three galaxies in the sample, obtained with the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT).

We extend this study to include additional 10 early-type galaxies with PNe radial velocity measurements available from the literature, including previous PNS studies, in order to obtain a broader description of the outer-halo kinematics in early-type galaxies. These data extend the information derived from stellar absorption-line kinematics to typically several and up to 8 effective radii.

The combination of photometry, absorption-line and PNe kinematics shows (i) a good agreement between the PNe number density distribution and the stellar surface brightness in the region where the two data sets overlap; (ii) a good agreement between PNe and absorption-line kinematics; (iii) that the mean rms velocity profiles fall into two groups, with part of the galaxies characterized by slowly decreasing profiles and the remainder having steeply falling profiles; (iv) a larger variety of velocity dispersion radial profiles; (v) that twists and misalignments in the velocity fields are more frequent at large radii, including some fast rotator galaxies; (vi) that outer haloes are characterized by more complex radial profiles of the specific angular momentum-related λR parameter than observed within 1 Re; (vii) that many objects are more rotationally dominated at large radii than in their central parts and (viii) that the halo kinematics are correlated with other galaxy properties, such as total B band and X-ray luminosity, isophotal shape, total stellar mass, V/σ and α parameter, with a clear separation between fast and slow rotators.

Keywords: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD; galaxies: general; galaxies: haloes; galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

Journal Article.  21282 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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