Journal Article

Black hole mergers: the first light

Elena M. Rossi, G. Lodato, P. J. Armitage, J. E. Pringle and A. R. King

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 401, issue 3, pages 2021-2035
Published in print January 2010 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online January 2010 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15802.x
Black hole mergers: the first light

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The coalescence of supermassive black hole binaries occurs via the emission of gravitational waves, that can impart a substantial recoil to the merged black hole. We consider the energy dissipation that results if the recoiling black hole is surrounded by a thin circumbinary disc. Our results differ significantly from those of previous investigations. We show analytically that the dominant source of energy is often potential energy, released as gas in the outer disc attempts to circularize at smaller radii. Thus, dimensional estimates, that include only the kinetic energy gained by the disc gas, underestimate the real energy loss. This underestimate can exceed an order of magnitude, if the recoil is directed close to the disc plane. We use three dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations and two-dimensional finite difference simulations to verify our analytic estimates. We also compute the bolometric light curve, which is found to vary strongly depending upon the kick angle. A prompt emission signature due to this mechanism may be observable for low-mass (106 M) black holes whose recoil velocities exceed ∼103 km s−1. Emission at earlier times can mainly result from the response of the disc to the loss of mass, as the black holes merge. We derive analytically the condition for this to happen.

Keywords: accretion, accretion discs; black hole physics; hydrodynamics

Journal Article.  11832 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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