Journal Article

Two-temperature accretion around rotating black holes: a description of the general advective flow paradigm in the presence of various cooling processes to explain low to high luminous sources

S. R. Rajesh and Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Published on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society

Volume 402, issue 2, pages 961-984
Published in print February 2010 | ISSN: 0035-8711
Published online February 2010 | e-ISSN: 1365-2966 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15925.x
Two-temperature accretion around rotating black holes: a description of the general advective flow paradigm in the presence of various cooling processes to explain low to high luminous sources

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We investigate viscous two-temperature accretion disc flows around rotating black holes. We describe the global solution of accretion flows with a sub-Keplerian angular momentum profile, by solving the underlying conservation equations including explicit cooling processes self-consistently. Bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and inverse Comptonization of soft photons are considered as possible cooling mechanisms. We focus on the set of solutions for sub-Eddington, Eddington and super-Eddington mass accretion rates around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes with a Kerr parameter of 0.998. It is found that the flow, during its infall from the Keplerian to sub-Keplerian transition region to the black hole event horizon, passes through various phases of advection: the general advective paradigm to the radiatively inefficient phase, and vice versa. Hence, the flow governs a much lower electron temperature ∼108– 109.5 K, in the range of accretion rate in Eddington units , compared to the hot protons of temperature ∼1010.2–1011.8 K. Therefore, the solution may potentially explain the hard X-rays and γ-rays emitted from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and X-ray binaries. We then compare the solutions for two different regimes of viscosity. We conclude that a weakly viscous flow is expected to be cooling dominated, particularly at the inner region of the disc, compared to its highly viscous counterpart, which is radiatively inefficient. With all the solutions in hand, we finally reproduce the observed luminosities of the underfed AGNs and quasars (e.g. Sgr A*) to ultraluminous X-ray sources (e.g. SS433), at different combinations of input parameters, such as the mass accretion rate and the ratio of specific heats. The set of solutions also predicts appropriately the luminosity observed in highly luminous AGNs and ultraluminous quasars (e.g. PKS 0743-67).

Keywords: accretion, accretion discs; black hole physics; hydrodynamics; radiative transfer

Journal Article.  8904 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics

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